Home Resources Reference Material

Reference Material

Solid Waste

 India generates 200 gm. to 500 gm. of solid waste per capita per day.This is alarming when you consider that it is a mere 25 per cent of the Indian population that resides in urban areas! Some of what you throw away might still be littering the earth 500 years from now.62.4 per cent of the total waste generated in India is produced by the 23 metro cities alone.

Water

 The National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) conducted a study on the problem of declining ground water levels across the country and reported that the overexploitation of ground water resources is widespread throughout the country. Water table levels are sinking at an alarming rate and nine Indian states are now running major water deficits. Surveys have found that water table…

Air Pollution

Since 1975, the Indian economy has grown 2.5 times while the vehicular pollution load has grown 7.5 times.The deteriorating air quality in India can be attributed to the increase in the number of vehicles and uncontrolled industrial and urban growth. Power plants and toxic fumes from garbage dumps also add to the pollution load. Emission standards that have come into practice as far back as 1992-93…

Soil

 Soil is an important non-renewable natural resource that is made of mineral and organic matter. It can take up to 10,000 years to build enough soil to create fertile farmland. Misguided agricultural practices such as the use of wrong fertilisers, over-exploitation of water resources and deforestation cause problems such as soil erosion, salinity, waterlogging and depletion of nutrients. Some other…

Forests

Forests have a great deal to offer in terms of resources that are imperative to our biologic and economic sustenance. However, these resources are not limitless and we must guard against wasting these.When the first forest policy was put into place in 1854, around 40 per cent of India was blanketed by thick forests. By 1980 we had just 12 per cent of thick forest cover.Since 1947 about 5.3 million hectares of forest area…

Wetlands

The Convention on Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar) defined wetlands as: "areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water whether natural or artificial, permanent, or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres." Natural or artificial marshes, stagnant lakes and ponds, mangroves, swamps, coral reefs…

Oceans

The sea covers around 70 per cent of the earth's surface. India with a 7,516 km tropical coastline has one of the world's most extravagant and productive ecosystems.Nearly half the country's population lives near the coasts. Reckless construction in major tourism centres like Goa, Mahabalipuram and Kovalam have accelerated coastal erosion. Other major problems that threaten the security of our oceans…

Urbanisation and Development

In the early 1900s one tenth of the world's population were urban dwellers. By 2006, it is estimated that half the world will be living in cities. Cities consume a major portion of the world's resources although they cover only two percent of the earth's surface. Within the period of 1990 and 1995, the population in cities of developing countries grew by 263 million. It has been estimated that some…

Wildlife Trade

 The Indian cheetah and pink-headed duck are gone forever. At least 10 billion dollars worth of resources are exploited from India's natural wealth each year.The international wildlife trade has resulted in around 622 species being pushed towards extinction globally.Between 60 to 80 per cent of all live animals smuggled around the world die in transit. Till the ban on exports in 1990, India used to…

Research abstracts

Sea turtles along the Gujarat coast S.F. Wesley Sunderraj, Justus Joshua, Sesh Serebiah Gujarat has the longest coastline in the country, covering more than 1600 km. However, according to earlier studies (1978-84), of four turtle species believed to occur in the state, only the Olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea and Green turtle Chelonia mydas are reported…

Page 3 of 4